Multifaceted roles of FHY3 and FAR1 in light
signaling and beyond.

 2015 Jul;20(7):453-61. doi: 10.1016/j.tplants.2015.04.003. Epub 2015 May 5.


FAR-RED ELONGATED HYPOCOTYLS3 (FHY3) and FAR-RED-IMPAIRED RESPONSE1 (FAR1), initially identified as crucial components of phytochrome A (phyA)-mediated far-red (FR) light signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana, are the founding members of the FAR1-related sequence (FRS) family of transcription factors present in most angiosperms. These proteins share extensive similarity with the Mutator-like transposases, indicative of their evolutionary history of 'molecular domestication'. Here we review emerging multifaceted roles of FHY3/FAR1 in diverse developmental and physiological processes, including UV-B signaling, circadian clock entrainment, flowering, chloroplast biogenesis, chlorophyll biosynthesis, programmed cell death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis, abscisic acid (ABA) signaling, and branching. The domestication of FHY3/FAR1 may enable angiosperms to better integrate various endogenous and exogenous signals for coordinated regulation of growth and development, thus enhancing their fitness and adaptation.


FAR1; FHY3; FRS gene family; Mutator-like transposase; molecular domestication